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dc.contributor.authorHe, Jia
dc.contributor.authorBartram, Dave
dc.contributor.authorInceoglu, Ilke
dc.contributor.authorVan de Vijver, Fons J.R.
dc.identifier.citationHe, J. et al. 2014. Response styles and personality traits: a multilevel analysis. Journal of cross-cultural psychology, 45(7):1028-1045. []en_US
dc.identifier.issn1552-5422 (Online)
dc.description.abstractIn two studies, we examined the shared and unique meaning of acquiescent, extreme, midpoint, and socially desirable responding in association with the Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ32), a forced-choice format personality measure designed to be less affected by these response styles, compared with personality inventories with Likert-type scales. Country-level response style indexes were derived from six waves of the International Social Survey Programme and from a meta-analysis of a social desirability scale. In the country-level correlational analysis, the four response styles formed a general response style (GRS) factor which was positively associated with (a) dominance (vs. submission) in interpersonal relationships, (b) competitive (vs. modest and democratic) feelings and emotions, and (c) data rational thinking. In a multilevel analysis, age showed a positive and education a negative effect on the individual-level GRS. Negative effects of country-level socioeconomic development and individualism and positive effects of competitiveness and data rational thinking on the individual-level response style were found. We conclude that country-level response styles are systematically associated with country personality measured by the OPQ32, suggesting that they can be viewed as having substantive meaning (i.e., culturally influenced response amplification vs. moderation). Implications are discussed.en_US
dc.subjectresponse stylesen_US
dc.subjectmidpoint respondingen_US
dc.subjectsocial desirabilityen_US
dc.subjectBig Five personalityen_US
dc.titleResponse styles and personality traits: a multilevel analysisen_US
dc.contributor.researchID13172735 - Van de Vijver, Alphonsius Josephus Rachel

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